Different types of fiberglass
Available types of these fibers are as follows:
– Strand: A bundle of filament that are squeezed together. These types of strands can rarely be found in their original form in the market because manufacturers usually weave strands together to produce a new product called yarn.
Yarns: are made of twisted strands with the same diameter (4-13 microns). The yarns are offered in different weights, which is measured in tex (weight (gram) per 1000 meters of yarn) or denier (weight (pound) per 10,000 yard of yarn). Yarns are typically available in 50-400 tex.
– roving: are usually available in form of bundles of non-twisted filaments or strands that stand freely next to each other. The filaments are of the same diameter (13-24 microns) and are available in weights ranging from 300- 4800 tex
In case, after the melting stage, the strands are pulled straight ahead and brought together in a bundle, the product would be a fiber that is known as “straight roving” and in case, in the production process, several strands are arranged together the product would be a fiber known as “integrated roving”. The filaments in integrated roving usually have smaller diameters compared to those used in straight roving, and provide better mechanical and wetness properties but usually have some shortcomings (uneven tensile properties of filaments) and are more expensive due to their complicated production process.
Moreover, in other processes such as spinning, short fibers can be used to produce long fibers. The spun fibers have higher resin absorption potential due to their wider surface area, but, compared to their equivalent continuous fibers, they have lower structural properties
Glass-E: General use
Glass-R: higher mechanical properties
Glass-S: higher mechanical properties
Glass-c: suitable chemical resistance
Glass-ECR: favorable acid and alkaline resistance
Glass-AR: favorable acid and alkaline resistance
Alkali Resistant Fiberglass ZrO2 16.2%.
Alkaline resistant fiberglass could be made of abrasion- resistant material such as cement. It can be used in glassfiber reinforced concrete (GRC), plaster and other organic and inorganic materials. It is also an ideal alternative for steel and asbestos in the wire-less composite of GRC. It enjoys light kits, high strength, and other properties such as non-flammability, and ductility, which make it a good choice for use, as a new non-organic compound, in the fields of construction, civil engineering, agriculture and fishing industry, decoration, chemical industry and military projects.
The AR glass, with at least 16% zirconium, is resistant to alkaline, which is used in 12 – 25 mm size to reinforce different concrete types.
In order to avoid tangling when using GFRC, it is advisable to add fibers at regular intervals to the mixer to provide the concrete pieces with the highest quality. In the concrete mixing process, the materials are added to the mixer in fine grained –to- coarse grained order.
It is therefore best to mix the fibers according to the following steps:
Water, cement, fiber, sand and then grit should be added to the mixer. By following this order, we can make sure about optimal mixing of fibers
The required time for fiber mixing is about 5 minutes.
Currently, AR fiberglass is manufactured in three forms.
Continuous Roving for use in the spray method